1 00-Inspiration

1.1 Audio-recording

“The original idea of the web was that it should be a collaborative space,
where you can communicate through sharing information.”

- Tim Berners-Lee
(One person often credited with inventing much of the internet as we know it)

## Before the internet, there was the ARPANET
* ARPANET, the precursor to the modern internet, was an academic research project funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, a branch of the military known for funding ambitious research projects without immediate commercial or military applications.
* Initially, the network only connected the University of Utah with three research centers in California.
* ARPANET was a test of a then-novel technology called packet-switching, which breaks data into small “packets” so they can be transmitted efficiently across the network.
* It also had a more practical goal: allowing more efficient use of expensive computing resources.
* Computer scientists sometimes used ARPA money to buy computers, and the agency hoped that ARPANET would allow universities to share these expensive resources more efficiently.
* One of the first ARPANET applications was Telnet, which allowed a researcher at one ARPANET site to log into a computer at another site.

## 1970: ARPANET expands
* By the end of 1970, ARPANET had grown to 13 nodes, including East Coast schools like Harvard and MIT.
* Among the early nodes was Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN), an engineering consulting company that did the engineering work required to build ARPANET.
* Each ARPANET site had a router known as an Interface Message Processor.
* These cost $82,200, or half a million dollars in today’s money.

1.2 1972: ARPANET documentary

A window into the way of thinking about things in 1972:

## 1973: ARPANET goes international
* In 1973, the ARPANET became international, with a satellite link connecting Norway and London to the other nodes in the United States.
* Hawaii also joined the network by satellite.
* At this point, the network had around 40 nodes.
* New ARPANET applications had begun to emerge.
* Email was invented in 1971 by a BBN engineer named Ray Tomlinson, who also invented the use of the “@” symbol in email addresses.
* The File Transfer Protocol, which is still used today, allowed ARPANET users to send files to each other.

## 1982: the ARPANET community grows
* As the ARPANET entered its second decade, it was still largely confined to the United States.
* Academic institutions depended on federal funding to join the network, so the number of nodes expanded slowly.
* By 1982, the network only had about 100 nodes.
* But that was enough to support a vibrant online community.
* Long before Facebook and Twitter, ARPANET allowed computer scientists who had access to the network to stay in touch.
* A new bulletin board system called Usenet was invented in 1980 and caught on quickly.
* Usenet was organized by topic, allowing users to swap programming tips, recipes, jokes, opinions about science fiction, and much more.
* Arguing on the internet has an ancient history…

### hosts.txt
* Computers need numeric addresses, but which human owns which numeric address is hard for humans to remember.
* The ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, had no distributed host name database.
* Originally a file named HOSTS.TXT was manually maintained and made available via file sharing by Stanford Research Institute for the ARPANET membership, containing the hostnames and address of hosts as contributed for inclusion by member organizations
* Each network node maintained its own map of the network nodes as needed and assigned them names that were memorable to the users of the system.
* There was no method for ensuring that all references to a given node in a network were using the same name, nor was there a way to read the hosts file of another computer to automatically obtain a copy.
* The small size of the ARPANET kept the administrative overhead small to maintain an accurate hosts file.
* Network nodes typically had one address and could have many names.
* As local area TCP/IP computer networks gained popularity, however, the maintenance of hosts files became a larger burden on system administrators as networks and network nodes were being added to the system with increasing frequency.
* The Domain Name System (DNS), first described in 1983 and implemented in 1984, automated the publication process and provided instantaneous and dynamic hostname resolution in the rapidly growing network.
* In modern operating systems, the hosts file remains an alternative name resolution mechanism, configurable often as part of facilities such as the Name Service Switch as either the primary method or as a fallback method.

1.3 1984 (irony, anyone?): ARPANET becomes the internet

## NSFNET: The first internet backbone
* During the 1980s, the National Science Network funded several super-computing centers around the United States.
* And in 1986 the agency created a TCP/IP-based network called NSFNET to link those super-computing centers together and allow researchers across the country to use them.
* The primary goal was to allow computer science researchers to log into the supercomputers and perform academic research.
* But NSF decided not to limit NSFNET to that purpose, allowing the network to be used for a wide variety of academic purposes.
* As a result, the NSFNET became the internet’s “backbone,” the high-speed, long-distance network that allowed different parts of the internet to communicate.
* Schools that didn’t have a direct connection to the NSFNET worked together to build regional networks that linked them to each other and to the nearest NSF node.
* This shows the NSFNET as it existed in 1992.
* By this time, there were 6,000 networks connected to NSFNET, with a third of them located overseas.
* That meant that students and faculty at a growing number of universities had access to email, Usenet, and even a recently-invented application called the World Wide Web!
* And although the NSFNET was officially restricted to non-commercial use, for-profit companies were increasingly connecting to the network as well, setting the stage for the commercialization of the internet that followed.

## The internet becomes a global network
* In 1993, the internet was still dominated by the United States, but it was becoming a truly global network.
* https:_en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preferential_attachment causes early nodes to tend to stick around and creates a https:_en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_law distribution of degree in nodes
* Above is a map of information flow on Usenet, an bulletin board application that allowed users to swap recipes, jokes, programming tips, and more.

## The privatization of the internet backbone
* In 1994, the Clinton Administration further facilitated the privatized the internet backbone.
* Commercial firms took over the job of carrying long-distance internet traffic, allowing the government-funded NSFNET to be decommissioned (how generous…).
* Officials were careful to ensure that no single company controlled too much of the backbone, helping to create a competitive market for internet connectivity that still exists today (lol…).
* The above four maps illustrate how the market had evolved by the turn of the century.
* Four of the largest private long-distance network providers were UUNet, AT&T, Sprint, and Level 3.
* Each had its own nationwide (and global) network, and they competed with each other to provide long-distance connectivity to smaller networks.
* UUNet became part of WorldCom in 1996, and became part of Verizon in 2006.
* Today, Verizon operates one of the world’s largest internet backbones, in competition with AT&T, Sprint, Level 3 and many other companies.

## Modern internet backbone

## Map of oceanic fiber

## Devices connected to the internet
Check out all the random devices visible to the open internet (and ready to be hacked and exploited):

## How the world gets online: fixed broadband penetration in 2012
* There are two primary ways people can log onto the internet:
* through a fixed broadband connection at home or in an office and
* via a wireless connection, often on a cell phone or tablet.
* This data from the International Telecommunications Union shows how popular fixed internet access is around the world.
* It shows internet access is widespread in most parts of the world, but is still fairly scarce in much of sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.
* Fixed internet access allows multiple devices in a customer’s home to access the internet.
* Fixed connections are also ideal for streaming-video services such as Netflix because they tend to have greater capacity than wireless networks.

## How the world gets online: mobile broadband penetration in 2012
* This map shows the percentage of consumers around the world who have mobile internet access (note that the colors on this map are not directly comparable to the previous map).
* In the developed world, people usually got fixed internet access first and obtained mobile internet devices later.
* But some developing countries are skipping the construction of fixed broadband networks altogether.
* This is cost-effective because a single cell phone tower can provide service to hundreds of customers.
* For examle, 2.7 percent of Egyptians have fixed broadband service at home, but 10 times as many Egyptians have internet access using a cell phone.
* The story is similar in Ghana, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, South Africa, and Nigeria.
* Mobile internet access can have profound implications for people in isolated areas.
* Farmers can use mobile phones to learn about recent market developments, increasing the amount they can get for their crops.
* Some mobile phone operators also offer sophisticated payment capabilities, allowing people who don’t have access to the conventional banking system to make electronic payments.
* A few wealthy countries, including Japan, South Korea, and Sweden, that have more mobile internet subscriptions than people.
* Some customers have two more or smartphones, tablets, or other connected mobile devices (imagine that).

## World broadband speeds, 2014
* Internet access is a lot faster in some places than others.
* According to Speedtest.net, a website that lets users test their own internet connections, the fastest internet in the world is in Hong Kong, with an average of almost 80 million bits per second (Mbps).
* Other high-speed countries include Japan, South Korea, Sweden, Romania, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.
* The United States clocks in at number 30, with average speeds of 24 Mbps.
* These figures are worth taking with a grain of salt because they’re based on a self-selected sample.
* Users must visit the speedtest.net website to test their own broadband speeds, and it stands to reason that users with fast connections would be most likely to try it.
* Still, the data permits interesting cross-country comparisons.

## Percentage of people online

## Internet users by world region

## Share of people using the internet by country

## Mobile data connections

## Broadband by country

## Where do you data live?
* If you’ve entrusted your data to Google, Facebook, Yahoo, or Microsoft, there’s a good chance it’s stored at a location marked by one of these pins.
* Smaller web companies store their servers in data centers managed by third parties, but the internet’s largest companies have their own dedicated data centers with hundreds of thousands of servers in them.
* These data centers are located around the world, distributed
* That has two advantages.
* First, locating data centers close to users allows data to be delivered more quickly.
* Second, it helps provide redundancy: if user data is kept in multiple locations, it will be safe even in the event of a catastrophic failure at one data center.
* On this map, Google data centers are red, Microsoft data centers are yellow, Yahoo data centers are purple, and Facebook data centers are blue.
* This is not an exhaustive list of these companies’ facilities.
* All of these companies are secretive about their operational details, and so some of the companies’ data center locations haven’t been publicly disclosed.

## Internet censorship around the world
* In most Western countries, the internet is a free-speech zone where ordinary people can express themselves without fear of censorship.
* But that’s not true everywhere.
* This map from Freedom House details which countries respect freedom of speech and which countries flout it.
* Cuba and several countries in Southeast Asia and the Middle East engage in pervasive censorship and are marked in purple.
* China, for example, has a “great firewall” that makes it difficult for its citizens to read about sensitive topics such as the Falun Gong or the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre.
* https://www.reddit.com/r/UnethicalLifeProTips/comments/b3f0d1/ulpt_if_youre_ever_doing_business_with_a_chinese/
* https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/07/china-bans-winnie-the-pooh-film-to-stop-comparisons-to-president-xi
* Other countries have a partially free internet (for now…).
* In Russia, for example, the government has engaged in more aggressive internet censorship since Vladimir Putin returned to power in 2012, and people have been killed by the state based on their internet presence…

## USA broadband companies

## USA broadband speed and access

1.4 And then COVID onlined everything…

Some early predictions:

Side-note: video traffic is the majority of internet traffic.

How it really played out:


The whole paper: 00-Inspiration/COVID_paper.pdf

1.5 What is the internet good for?

According to some people (who I don’t particularly agree with), not much:

“We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters.”
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Thiel

“Men landed on the moon 50 years ago, a tremendous feat of American creativity, courage, and, not least, technology.
The tech discoveries made in the space race powered innovation for decades.
But I wonder, 50 years on, what the tech industry is giving America today.”
Or to put it another way, “We wanted Mars colonies and all we got was infinite scrolling!”
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josh_Hawley

Is there merit to this sentiment?
What have we built in 2022?

1.6 A brilliantly complex thinking machine!

Next: 01-Overview.html